Thomas Sanders in the ‘Returns of Papists’ and Nonjurors’ estates’

In the previous post I wrote about Thomas Sanders or Saunders of Fladbury, Worcestershire, who was included in a return of ‘papists’ and nonjurors’ estates’ in 1723. I’m fairly certain this is the Thomas Sanders or Saunders who married Margaret Boulton, my first cousin 10 x removed, if Ancestry is to be believed.

The returns are held at the National Archives, and I’ve purchased a copy of the records for Worcestershire, which includes the entry for Thomas Sanders. There are 21 individual entries in total for the county, and Sanders’ is the only one for Fladbury. I wonder if it’s a complete list? One of Thomas’ neighbours, the recusant Sir Robert Throckmorton, is listed under Warwickshire, while his main address is given as Weston Underwood in Buckinghamshire.

First page of the returns for Worcestershire

First page of the returns for Worcestershire

The Worcestershire entries are introduced thus:

A Coppy of the Severall Registers made with the Clerk of the Peace for the County of Worcester by such persons who refused to take the Oaths pursuant to an Act of Parliament made in the ninth Yeare of the Reign of his present Majesty King George Entitled an Act to Oblige all persons being papist in that part of Great Brittaine called Scotland and all persons in Great Brittaine refuseing or neglecting to take the Oaths appointed for the Security of his Majesties person and Government by Severall Acts herein mentioned to Register their names and Real Estates. 

The entry for Thomas Sanders reads as follows:

A true particular of the Messuages Lands Tenements and Hereditaments of Thomas Sanders of Moore in the parish of Fladbury in the County of Worcs. Gent whereof I the s[ai]d. Thomas Sanders or any other person or persons in Trust for me or for my use are Seized or poss[ess]ed or in receipt or perception of the Rents and Proffitts thereof as followeth Vizt. – 

One Messuage One Tenement one Stable one Barne and some other Outhouseing belonging to the said Messuage or Tenement Twelve Acres of thereabouts of Meadow and pasture Ground also belonging to the said Messuage or Tenement in the poss[ess]ion of me the said Thomas Sanders of the Yearely Value of sixteen pounds. 

One other Messuage or Tenement and Garden in the poss[ess]ion of Mary Willis of the Yearely value of Twenty Shillings All other the Outhouses Lands Tenements and Hereditaments whatsoever belonging to the firstmentioned Messuage or Tenement are now in the poss[ess]ion of and Rented by John Knowles at the Yearely Rent of 54 s.[?] All which said Messuages Landes and premisses are Situate lyeing and being in Hill Moore and Wyre Piddle in the said parish of Fladbury in the said County of Worcs. In Wittness whereof I have hereunto subscribed my name the 14th Day of January Anno D[o]m[i]ni 1723. Tho: Sanders. Subscribed in Open Court at the General Quarter Sessions of the Peace for the County of Worcester the fourteenth day of January 1723. Hen: Townshend. W: Byrche.

Lower Moor viewed from Hill, Fladbury, Worcestershire (via http://e-services.worcestershire.gov.uk-

Lower Moor viewed from Hill, Fladbury, Worcestershire (via http://e-services.worcestershire.gov.uk-

Hill, Moor and Wyre Piddle were all hamlets within the parish of Fladbury. John Knowles, one of Thomas Sanders’ tenants named here, was included in the ‘list of voters from the last election in Fladbury’ appended to the letter written in July 1702 by Bishop Lloyd of Worcester to the rector of Fladbury, urging him to discourage his parishioners from voting for the High Church Tory Sir John Pakington. As for Pakington himself, he doesn’t seem to have been a nonjuror (presumably this would have prevented him for standing for election?), though he had refused to swear the ‘Assocation’ oath of loyalty to William III in 1696, was known to have sheltered nonjurors, and at the time of the 1715 Jacobite rebellion was one of nine Members of Parliament ordered into custody.

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Thomas Sanders of Fladbury and the non-jurors

In the last post I summarised what I know about the Forrest family of Fladbury, Worcestershire. I have good reason to believe that my 9 x great grandfather, Thomas Forrest, a London citizen and haberdasher who died in 1678, was born in Fladbury, though I’ve yet to prove it.

As always, I’m interested in the religious and political affiliations of my ancestors, and their connection with historical events. For example, I was intrigued to discover that in 1723-5, Thomas Sanders or Saunders, a ‘gentleman’ of Moor in Fladbury, was listed in a ‘Return of papists’ and nonjurors’ estates’. I’m fairly sure that this is ‘Mr Thomas Saunders of Moore’ to whose three children William Forrest of Badsey (brother of my ancestor Thomas) left money in his will of 1698. Saunders had married one of the daughters of William’s (and Thomas’) sister Alice (the wife of William Boulton), at some point in the 1680s. As I noted in the last post, one of the children of this marriage, Hester Saunders, married Thomas Crabb, and their son Henry Crabb Boulton would serve as the Member of Parliament for Worcester and chairman of the East India Company. Thomas Saunders or Sanders was probably born in the 1660s, so he would have been in his sixties when the return of nonjurors’ estates was published. It seems unlikely that there were two men of the same name in the tiny hamlet of Hill and Moor. A Thomas Sanders was included in a list of Fladbury electors in 1702, and there’s a good chance this was the person mentioned both in William Forrest’s will four years earlier, and in the list of nonjurors twenty or so years later.

1715 rising: the 'Old Pretender' lands in Scotland

1715:  the ‘Old Pretender’ lands in Scotland

The description of the list of nonjurors at the National Archives reads as follows:

Following the Jacobite Rebellion of 1715, all catholics refusing to take oaths of loyalty to king and government were required to register their names and estates at quarter sessions. Lands not so registered would be forfeit.

This series consists of returns by clerks of the peace for most counties of England and Wales and several towns of the names and estate details of catholics and nonjurors, registered pursuant to an Act of 1722.

The returns describe the estates in detail, giving precise locations and dimensions of lands; land and building names; topographical and building details; and all privileges and appurtenances. Tenants are named, with details of tenure, and rents are sometimes given. In most instances it is not clear whether the returnees were catholics or nonjurors.

Also in this series are a few certificates of the Land Tax Commissioners, concerning the assessment of double tax on the property of catholics.

As this note explains, inclusion in the list does not necessarily mean that the person named was a Catholic. Many nonjurors were Anglicans, as explained in this Wikipedia entry:

The nonjuring schism was a split in the Anglican churches of England, Scotland and Ireland in the aftermath of the Glorious Revolution of 1688, over whether William of Orange and his wife Mary could legally be recognised as King and Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland.

The word ‘nonjuring’ means ‘not swearing [an oath]’, from the Latin word iuro or juro meaning ‘to swear an oath’.

Many of the Anglican clergy felt legally bound by their previous oaths of allegiance to James II and, though they could accept William as regent, they could not accept him as king. It was not necessarily a split on matters of religious doctrine, but more of a political issue and a matter of conscience, though most of the conjurors were high church Anglicans. Thus, latitudinarian Anglicans were handed control of the Church of England. The nonjurors thus were nominally Jacobite, although they generally did not actively support the Jacobite rebellions in 1715 or 1745.

So Thomas Sanders or Saunders might have been a high church Anglican rather than a Catholic; I’ve found no evidence of Catholic affiliation among his descendants. However, there is certainly evidence of continuing nonjuring sympathies among the population in that part of Worcestershire. Apparently Worcestershire in general was strongly royalist during the Civil War. We also know that the Throckmortons, one of the prominent landowning families in the Fladbury area, remained Catholic, supported the King in the Civil War, and suffered loss of their estates as a result. Thomas Throckmorton of Coughton was mentioned in the same legal document as Robert, William and Thomas Forrest ‘all of Hill in Fladbury, husbandmen’ in 1608.

Sir Robert Throckmorton

Sir Robert Throckmorton (via Wikipedia)

In the election of 1702, another prominent local landowner and politician, Sir John Pakington of Westwood Park, a staunch Tory and Anglican traditionalist, faced a vigorous campaign against him by William Lloyd, the Bishop of Worcester. In the words of one source:

Lloyd used the occasion of his episcopal visitation to issue veiled exhortations to the voters to eschew Pakington, and in private excoriated the baronet for debauchery and adherence to the Pretender. The dispute between Pakington and Lloyd epitomized one of the most important divisions within the Church, that between an increasingly Whiggish, Latitudinarian episcopate and a High Anglican, Tory squirearchy.

Lloyd went so far as to write to local vicars to encourage them to put pressure on their electors to vote against Pakington. One letter, ‘To the Reverend Poutney, Rector of Fladbury’ berates the local electors for voting for Pakington in the past and adds a postscript: ‘The enclosed is a list of the voters from Fladbury at the last election. I pray God direct them this time to vote better or to stay away’. The list then follows –and it’s from this list that we know that Thomas Sanders was one of those entitled to a vote in the parish, as well as one or two other familiar names, such as Thomas Horniblow and William and Richard Bushell.

Sir John Pakington

Sir John Pakington

I’ve been reading a great deal recently about the political and religious conflicts of the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, including James and Ben Long’s gripping Traitor to the Crown, which describes the little-known episode in which Samuel Pepys was arrested on a charge of treason in the aftermath of the imagined ‘Popish Plot’, and Meriol Trevor’s enjoyably revisionist biography of Pepys’ erstwhile employer James Stuart, Duke of York and later (briefly) James II of England and VII of Scotland. I’m intrigued to discover on which side of these disputes my ancestors found themselves.

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The Forrests of Fladbury

My maternal 9 x great grandfather Thomas Forrest was a haberdasher at Little Tower Hill, London, in the second half of the seventeenth century. What do we know about his origins?

We don’t for sure when Thomas was born, but we know that he was buried on 12th January 1678 at the church of St Botolph, Aldgate. We also know that he married a woman named Anne, and it seems likely she was the Anne Borrowes, from the parish of St Andrew, Holborn, who married a man named Thomas Forrest at the church of St Bartholomew the Great on 18th June 1650.The name ‘Burroughs’ – an alternative spelling for Borrowes? – occurs in the will of Thomas’ daughter, Alice. She married John Byne, a Sussex-born stationer who also lived at Tower Hill, in about 1675. John and Alice Byne were my 8 x great grandparents.

Tower Hill in the late 17th century

Tower Hill in the late 17th century

But where was Thomas Forrest born, and where did his family come from? My current theory is that the Forrests were from the village of Fladbury, near Evesham in Worcestershire. What evidence do we have for this?

Our starting-point for understanding the family’s Worcestershire connections is the will of William Forrest of Badsey, who died in 1700, and also the will of Thomas Forrest’s daughter Alice Byne, who died in 1738. William left money and property to ‘my Cozen Alice Bine’ and to her four children. In fact, Alice was the most favoured of the many beneficiaries of William’s will, suggesting a fairly close family connection. My current theory is that she was his niece, and that her father Thomas was William’s brother. Alice’s own will makes reference to her property in Badsey. William Forrest’s will is also the primary source for our understanding of the interwoven histories of the Forrest, Boulton and Saunders families, all of whom had their roots in Worcestershire.

Fladbury, Worcestershire

Fladbury, Worcestershire

As for the link with Fladbury, we know that William Forrest had a sister Alice who married a man named Boulton – almost certainly William – and moved to London. Their son Major Peter Boulton was married twice. His first wife, whom he married in 1691, was Elizabeth Bushell of Fladbury, Worcestershire. His second wife, Posthuma Landick, was also descended from a branch of the Bushell family in Bath. We also know that one of Peter Boulton’s sisters, possibly named Margaret, married Thomas Sanders or Saunders from the hamlet of Moor, otherwise Hill and Moor, which was in the parish of Fladbury. It was their daughter Hester, christened in Fladbury in 1688, who would marry Thomas Crabb of Whitechapel, and whose son Henry Crabb Boulton would become chairman of the East India Company and Member of Parliament for Worcester.

If we search the Fladbury parish records for the name ‘Forrest’, we find numerous family members living there throughout the seventeenth century, many of them in Hill and Moor. For example, a Thomas Forrest was baptised at Fladbury on 9th March 1633. He was the son of another William Forrest. Perhaps it was the same William Forrest who had a second son named Thomas christened at Fladbury five years later, in 1638, suggesting that the first Thomas had died in infancy. This is almost certainly the William Forrest who also had three other children christened at Fladbury: John (1631), Robert (1635) and Elizabeth (1641). All of these except for John are mentioned in William’s will of 1681, which a researcher has found for me in the Worcestershire archives. The early date of Thomas’ birth (if he was born in 1638, he couldn’t have got married in 1650), and the fact that he was still alive in 1681, means that he can’t be my ancestor, the London haberdasher.

Fladbury parish church (via geograph)

Fladbury parish church (via geograph)

A man named George Forrest (William’s brother?) had a son William baptised at Fladbury on 27th February 1626 and a daughter Alisia (Alice) christened there on 25th October 1629. Could this be the William Forrest who died in Badsey in 1700, and could this be his sister Alice who married William Boulton? Perhaps George Forrest also had a son named Thomas? If so, I’ve yet to find a record of his birth. George Forrest is probably the man of that name who married Anne Horniblow at Fladbury on 10th August 1625. He also had a daughter named Anne, baptised at Fladbury in 1632.

One of the witnesses to William Forrest’s will of 1681 was a certain Thomas Horniblow, almost certainly a relation. Like the Forrests, the Horniblows seem to have been well-established in Fladbury. A legal document from 1608, that I cited in an earlier post, mentions an earlier Thomas Horniblow, alongside ‘Robert Forrest and William Forrest, his son’, and another Thomas Forrest.

The parish register also makes mention of a certain Edward Forrest, who had four children christened at Fladbury in the early decades of the seventeenth century: Anne (1607), Joan (1608), Mary (1610) and Edward (1613). There are also records for a Richard Forrest, who had three children baptised in the second decade of the century: Richard and Thomas (both 1623), and John (1626). Then there is a John Forrest who had four children christened a couple of decades later: Elizabeth (1641), Margaret (1643), Jane (1647) and Robert (1650).

The Forrests seem to have left frustratingly few wills, so working out the relationships between these different branches of the family, and my ancestor Thomas’ place in the family tree, is not going to be easy.

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Lydell, Markland, Littleton – and Pepys

Towards the end of the last post I mentioned Dennis Lydell, who is described as ‘my honoured friend’ in the 1715 will of Martin Markland, the second husband of my ancestor Elizabeth Boulton. I noted that Lydell was, like Markland, an official with the Navy Board, but it turns out that I may have underestimated his importance.

I’ve since discovered that Dennis Lydell was actually Commissioner of the Navy and a friend of Samuel Pepys, no less. Not only that, but he must also have been a wealthy man, since in 1695 he purchased Wakehurst Place in Sussex from the Culpeper family. It is now a National Trust property. In 1701 Lydell served as Member of Parliament for Harwich, Essex: the same constituency that Pepys had represented a couple of decades earlier.

Wakehurst Place, Sussex (via nationaltrust.org.uk)

Wakehurst Place, Sussex (via nationaltrust.org.uk)

Apparently West Sussex Record office holds a copy of Dennis Lydell’s will, made in 1714, the year before Martin Markland’s. From the reference at the National Archives we learn that Lydell’s wife was called Martha and that they had two sons, Richard (his executor) and Charles. We also learn that Lydell’s London address was in the parish of St Olave Hart Street, which I believe was also the parish where Martin Markland spent his childhood, as well as being the home of Captain Richard Boulton of the East India Company, the brother of Markland’s wife Elizabeth.

From other family trees at Ancestry I’ve discovered that Dennis Lydell married Martha Haddock, the daughter of Captain and later Admiral Richard Haddock, in September 1690. Their elder son Richard was born in 1680 and died in 1746. He served as Chief Secretary for Ireland and Member of Parliament for Bossiney in Cornwall. His younger brother Charles, a clergyman who served the parish of Ardingley, in which the family home of Wakehurst Place was situated, died in 1758.

I’ve also found another record that links Dennis Lydell and Martin Markland to the Littleton family, albeit in a fairly indirect way. An extract from the declared accounts of the navy for 1704-5 includes payments to both Lydell and Markland. The name at the head of the page reads as follows:

Dame Anne Littleton, widow and sole executrix of Sir Thomas Littleton, bart., late Treasurer of the Navy.

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New information about the Boulton-Littleton connection

A few days ago I wrote about my discovery of the first marriage of Elizabeth Boulton who, according to Ancestry, was my first cousin 10 x removed: her mother, who was born Alice Forrest, was the sister of my 9 x great grandfather Thomas Forrest, a London citizen and haberdasher. Elizabeth married John Littleton in June 1686 at the church of St Botolph Aldersgate in the City of London. The Boulton and Forrest families had their roots in Worcestershire, and it appears from my research that this was also true of the Littleton family. My last post explored John Littleton’s possible connection with the illustrious Littletons, whose members included a number of eminent clergymen and courtiers, noted for their loyalty to the royalist cause.

I’ve yet to discover John Littleton’s precise relationship to the Littleton family. My current theory is that he might have been the son of the man who married John and Elizabeth at St Botolph’s: Dr Adam Littleton, the clergyman, poet, translator and lexicographer. However, I’ve now made another discovery that confirms John’s connection to the Littletons of Worcestershire.

The marriage of John Littleton and Elizabeth Boulton was short-lived, since in July 1694 Elizabeth married her second husband, Navy Board official Martin Markland. John Littleton must have died some time between 1686 and 1694, though I’ve yet to find a record of his death, or evidence of any children resulting from the marriage. Martin and Elizabeth Markland would have two children that we know of: Peter, born in 1697, and Alice, born in 1701. Elizabeth was still alive when Martin made his will in 1715.

Naunton Court

Naunton Court, Naunton Beauchamp

The National Archives includes a reference to a document dated 1697 and headed ‘Markland v Littleton’, which obviously relates to a legal dispute. The details are given as follows:

Plaintiffs: Martin Markland and Elizabeth Markland his wife.

Defendants: Margaret Oldnall, (unknown) Littleton and another.

Place of subject: personal estate of Humphrey Littleton, Naunton, Worcestershire.

Document type: answer and schedule

I’ve ordered a copy of the document and hope it will reveal something of John Littleton’s precise relationship to the Worcestershire Littletons. My assumption is that John Littleton’s will (which I’ve yet to locate) entitled his widow Elizabeth to a share in the estate of Humphrey Littleton or Lyttleton of Naunton, presumably a relative of John’s, but that this was disputed by other members of the Littleton family. The Oldnalls seem to have been another long-established Worcestershire family.

The property in question is almost certainly Naunton Court at Naunton Beauchamp, only six miles or so from Fladbury, where Elizabeth’s mother’s family, the Forrests, originated. The name ‘Humphrey Lyttleton’ is perhaps most familiar to modern ears as belonging to the much-loved jazz musician and radio presenter. However, he shared it with a number of his ancestors, including one who died in 1665 and was the owner of the manor of Naunton Beauchamp.

Naunton Court today (via Birmingham Mail)

Naunton Court today (via Birmingham Mail)

This Humphrey Littleton seems to have been descended from John Littleton or Lyttleton of Frankley (1520 – 1590), who belonged to a different branch of the Worcestershire Littletons from the Dr Adam Littleton who married John and Elizabeth in 1686. Interestingly, this branch seems to have remained Catholic during the reign of Elizabeth I and the early part of James’ reign. One member was involved in the plot by the Earl of Essex to overthrow Elizabeth, dying in prison. Another, perhaps the second most famous Humphrey Littleton, was implicated in the Gunpowder Plot, for which he was executed at Red Hill near Worcester in 1606.

Contemporary print showing Gunpowder plotters being hanged, drawn and quartered

Contemporary print showing Gunpowder plotters being hanged, drawn and quartered

From what I’ve been able to discover in the records, it seems that the ownership of Naunton Beauchamp passed from John Littleton of Frankley to his younger sons and then to a number of their cousins, including yet another Humphrey Littleton, of Groveley. The manor was eventually inherited in 1634 by the Humphrey Littleton, then only a year old, who would die in 1665.

These discoveries have also made me wonder if there was any connection between Elizabeth Boulton’s first and second husbands. It may simply be that the Boultons already knew the Markland family, who seem to have lived in the parish of St Olave Hart Street, which was close to the Boulton family home in the parish of All Hallows Barking. Or it’s possible that one of Elizabeth’s brothers, either Captain Richard Boulton or Major Peter Boulton, both of whom were associated with the East India Company, had dealings with Martin Markland when he worked at the Navy Board. However, I notice that Markland worked for the Board at the time when Sir Thomas Littleton, another member of the famous family, was Treasurer to the Navy, having previously served as Speaker of the House of Commons. Coincidence?

Incidentally, looking again at a list of Navy Board officials, I notice that as well as Martin Markland it also includes a certain Dennis Lydell, who held a number of posts with the Board and was eventually served as Controller of the Treasurer’s Accounts from 1791 to 1717. Martin Markland describes Lydell as ‘my honoured friend’ in his will of 1715.

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Elizabeth Boulton and the Littleton family

My recent work on the life of Henry Crabb Boulton (1709 – 1773), Member of Parliament and East India Company director, has re-awakened my interest in the Boulton and Forrest families of London and Worcestershire. Henry Crabb Boulton’s great grandparents were William Boulton and Alice Forrest, the latter being the sister of my 9 x great grandfather, London citizen and haberdasher Thomas Forrest. The Forrest and Boulton families both appear to have had roots in the villages around Evesham in Worcestershire.

Early nineteenth-century map of the Evesham area in Worcestershire

Early nineteenth-century map of the Evesham area in Worcestershire

Although I’ve managed to piece together a great deal of the history of the two families, mainly drawing on family wills that I’ve found online, I’ve hit a number of brick walls in my attempt to trace their Worcestershire origins. As a consequence, I’ve recently engaged a professional researcher, based in the county, to explore the local archives for me, and I look forward to hearing what she manages to discover.

Nevertheless, I continue to make occasional new discoveries of my own. For example, yesterday I solved the mystery of the first marriage of Elizabeth Boulton, one of the daughters of William Boulton and Alice Forrest. Probably born in about 1670 and almost certainly in the parish of All Hallows Barking, in the City of London, we know that Elizabeth married Navy Board official Martin Markland in July 1694. However, the parish record gives Elizabeth’s surname as Littleton rather than Boulton, even though we know from later records that Martin Markland was definitely married to Elizabeth Boulton.

St Botolph Aldersgate today (via Wikipedia)

St Botolph Aldersgate today (via Wikipedia)

Yesterday, I finally discovered evidence of Elizabeth’s first marriage, in 1686, to John Littleton. The marriage took place on 19th June at the church of St Botolph Aldersgate, and both bride and groom were said to be of the parish of All Hallows Barking. But why choose St Botolph’s rather than their own parish church? The reason might be that the couple were married, according to the parish register, by a certain ‘Dr Littleton’.

Interestingly, it turns out that this was Dr Adam Littleton, who was (to quote one source) ‘born of an antient and genteel family…in Worcestershire’. Born in 1627, Adam’s father was Thomas Littleton, also a clergyman and vicar of Halesowen, then in Shropshire. Educated at Westminster School, Adam Littleton was elected to Christ Church, Oxford, in 1644 ,where he was a conspicuous opponent of the parliamentary visitation which purged the University of royalist sympathisers, writing a satirical Latin poem on the subject, and was expelled in November 1648. However in May 1651 he joined with three other students in a petition for the restitution of their scholarships, which seems to be have been successful. Appointed as an usher and then second master at his old school, after the Restoration Littleton taught at Chelsea where he was also appointed rector of the parish church. Besides his excursions into verse, Adam Littleton was the author of a number of theological texts and translations from Latin.

Satirical attack on the parliamentary visitation of Oxford, with contribution by Adam Littleton under the pseudonym 'Redman Westcot'

Satirical attack on the parliamentary visitation of Oxford, with contribution by Adam Littleton under the pseudonym ‘Redman Westcot’

Charles II made Littleton a royal chaplain, and he also served as a chaplain to Prince Rupert of the Rhine. In 1674 he became prebendary of Westminster Abbey, in 1683 rector of Overton in Hampshire, and in 1685 he was licensed to the church of St Botolph, Aldergate, where he served for about four years, thus confirming that he was indeed the Dr Littleton who married John Littleton and Elizabeth Boulton.

But what was Dr Adam Littleton’s relationship to John? Of course, the shared surname and the Worcestershire connection might be coincidence, but I think this unlikely. Since John Littleton must have been born by 1670 at the latest, it’s possible that he was Adam Littleton’s son. I’ve discovered that Dr Littleton was married three times. On 6th March 1655 he married Elizabeth Scudimore at the church of St Mildred Poultry. On 24th January 1667 he married Susan Rich of West Ham at St Andrew Undershaft. Finally, he married Susan Guildford, daughter of Richard Guildford of Chelsea, by which he acquired a fortune, but apparently he spent freely as a collector and, when he died in 1694, left his third wife in poor circumstances for the remaining four years of her life. It’s possible that John Littleton was the son of Adam Littleton by his first marriage, though I’ve yet to find any record of his birth or baptism.

The Littletons were an illustrious family, and they seem to have shared Adam’s royalist and High Church opinions. Adam’s father Thomas was one of five sons of Thomas Littleton of Stoke Milburgh, Shropshire, who died in 1621. The eldest son, Sir Adam Littleton, who was made a baronet by King Charles I in 1642, was the father of Sir Thomas Littleton, and the grandfather of another Sir Thomas who served as one of the lords of the treasury. Thomas Littleton of Stoke Milburgh had another son, Sir Edward Littleton, who served as Chief Justice of North Wales. His eldest son, also Edward, was Lord Keeper of the Great Seal under Charles I and was created Lord Littleton in 1640. A second son, William, was a sergeant at law, while two other sons, James and John, were Fellows of All Souls, Oxford. The latter was for a time Master of the Inner Temple, from which he was ejected in 1644. According to one source: ‘He and his family were staunch adherents to the royal cause, and in the course of 1642 he left London and joined the king’. Another Littleton brother, Nathaniel, was a gentleman in the Earl of Southampton’s company in the Low Countries, and another, Timothy, served as one of the barons of the Exchequer.

The Inner Temple

The Inner Temple

I wonder how Elizabeth Boulton came to meet her first husband, and what connections there might have been between the Boulton and the Littleton families? Did the link have its origins in their common roots in Worcestershire, or did it go deeper and touch on matters of shared political and religious opinions? We know that one branch of the Worcestershire Boulton family included a Nonjuror, whether Catholic of ‘High Church’ is unclear, who suffered deprivation of his property after the pro-Stuart 1715 uprising. This was Thomas Saunders of the hamlet of Moor near Fladbury, who married Margaret Boulton, Elizabeth’s sister, and whose grandson was Henry Crabb Boulton, with whom we began this post. Did these sympathies extend more widely in the Boulton family, and were my Worcestershire ancestors (unlike the Byne family of Sussex, with whom they would be linked by marriage) royalists rather than parliamentarians in the conflict that divided England in the seventeenth century?

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The heirs of Henry Crabb Boulton (and the Jane Austen connection)

In my last post I summarised what I’ve been able to discover about Henry Crabb Boulton (1709 – 1773), the politician and leading figure of the East India Company who was a distant relative of mine. In this post, I want to explore what we can learn from Henry’s will, and to trace the lives of his heirs and descendants.

As I noted in the previous post, Henry Crabb Boulton’s brother Richard, a captain in the service of the East India Company, married Frances Heames in 1738. I’ve found records of the christenings of three children born to Richard and Frances, who sometimes went by the surname Crabb and sometimes Boulton, which can makes searching for them in the records problematic.

St Helen's Bishopsgate

St Helen’s Bishopsgate today

On 3rd December 1746 Richard Crabb the younger was baptised at the church of All Hallows Staining in the City of London. On 26th August 1752 Henry Crabb was christened at the church of St Helen Bishopsgate. On 13th October in the following year, a daughter named Frances was christened at the same church. We know from Richard Crabb Boulton’s will that, as well as his house in Crosby Square, Bishopsgate, he also owned property in Chigwell, Essex.

When Henry Crabb Boulton made his will in Agusut 1773, a few months before his death, his nephew Henry was one of the main beneficiaries. There is no mention in the will of a nephew named Richard or of a niece named Frances. One source at Ancestry claims that Frances or Fanny Crabb married Josiah Ogilvy of Datchet in Buckinghamshire but I’m not convinced this is the same person.

Other beneficiaries of Henry’s will included his brother Richard and his cousin Elizabeth Collibee née Jemblin, daughter of his mother’s sister Grace, who had been married to James Jemblin. Also benefitting from the will was a certain Captain Augustus Savage, who seems to have worked for the East India Company, and a number of Henry’s household servants.

Valentines, Ilford, in 1771

Valentines, Ilford, in 1771

Just over a year after Henry Crabb Boulton’s death, his nephew Henry was married. On 3rd November 1775, at the same church in Bishopsgate where he had been christened twenty-three years earlier, Henry Boulton Esquire, as he now styled himself, married Juliana Raymond. She was the daughter of Sir Charles Raymond of Valentines, a country house in Ilford, Essex. Charles Raymond was another retired East India Company captain who had sailed with Henry’s father Richard, becoming a wealthy man as a result of the private earnings he acquired on his many voyages for the Company. In 1754 he bought Valentines from Robert Surman, a banker with investments in the EIC.

Juliana Raymond had an older sister Sophia who married Sir William Burrell, Member of Parliament for Haslemere, and grandson of Charles Raymond’s uncle, Hugh Raymond, who had himself served as an East India Company captain earlier in the century. Juliana also had a younger sister, Anna Maria, who married Thomas Newte, a second cousin. Newte had also come up through the ranks of the EIC to become a captain, working in close association with the Raymond family. Sadly Anna Maria died in 1781, two years after they were married.

Richard Crabb Boulton died in 1777, but he had made his will in 1764, which explains why he left money to his brother Henry, who in the event would predecease him. The principal beneficiary is his wife Frances, but his sons Richard and Henry are also to inherit – so we know that Richard survived until at least 1764. However, there is no mention of his daughter Frances.

Richard Crabb inherited his brother Henry’s house at Thorncroft after the latter’s death, and I assume that on Richard’s death in 1777 his son Henry took possession of it.

After he husband’s health declined, Juliana’s sister Lady Sophia Burrell moved to Deepdene in Dorking, about five miles from Thorncroft. Sophia achieved fame as a poet and dramatist. She published two volumes of collected poems in 1793, the Thymriad from Xenophon, and Telemachus. In 1796 William Burrell died, with Lady Burrell having had two sons and two daughters by him. On 23 May 1797 she remarried to the Reverend William Clay. In 1800 Sophia produced two tragedies. The first was Maximian, the second was Theodora, dedicated by permission to Georgiana Cavendish, Duchess of Devonshire.

Eliza de Feullide (via Wikipedia)

Eliza de Feullide (via Wikipedia)

Some time ago I corresponded with Nicholas Ennos, the author of an intriguing book about the novels of Jane Austen, which he controversially argues were written by Austen’s cousin Eliza de Feuillide, who was also married to Jane’s brother Henry. Eliza, who was a close friend of Sophia Burrell, was widely believed to be the illegitimate daughter of Warren Hastings, the Governor General of India. Warren Hastings was a  friend of Sir Charles Raymond. Ennos claims that in Jane Austen’s novel Emma (published in 1815), the town of Highbury is based on Leatherhead and the house of the heroine’s father, ‘Hartfield’, is based on Henry Crabb Boulton’s house at Thorncroft.

Henry and Juliana baptised 10 children while living at Thorncroft. These were: Frances (1776), Richard (1777), Sophia (1778), Juliana (1779), Maria (1782), Harriet (1783), Emma (1784), Henry (1786), Charles (1788), and Louisa (17910.

I’m grateful to a contributor at Rootsweb on Ancestry for the information that follows. In 1781 Henry Boulton bought the manor of Pachenesham and built a new house at Gibbon’s Farm which was named as Gibbon’s Grove. He also bought an estate at Headley and Barnet Wood Farmhouse in Leatherhead. In 1809 he was insuring three farms: Thorncroft, Gibbons Grove and Bocketts. London directories show that he occupied town houses from at least 1792 at 5 Tavistock Square, 12 Upper Gower Street and at 9 Abingdon Street. He was  a member of Sun Fire Company as early as 1784 and was also Governor of ‘The Corporation for working Mines, Minerals and metals in Scotland’ whose office was in the Sun Fire Office in Cornhill.

Henry retired in 1825 and his son Charles succeeded him. In 1800 he was listed in the London Directory as being with the Sun Fire Office in Craig’s Court. Insurance policies show his interest in shipping also. In 1809 he insured the vessel Worcester lying in the East India Docks.

Juliana died before him on 20th December 1813. When Henry died in 1828 his property passed to his son Richard but this son died in 1859 without issue. The estates then passed to his brother Charles Boulton’s second son John Boulton who had been to Mauritius and was a Captain in the Royal Artillery with addresses in Hammersmith and Edinburgh. So he became the owner of Givons Grove, and Bocketts farm, Leatherhead, and sold Thorncroft.

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